Genome sequence of the fish pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum suggests reductive evolution away from an environmental Arthrobacter ancestor.

Wiens GD, Rockey DD, Wu Z, Chang J, Levy R, Crane S, Chen DS, Capri GR, Burnett JR, Sudheesh PS, Schipma MJ, Burd H, Bhattacharyya A, Rhodes LD, Kaul R, Strom MS.

Renibacterium salmoninarum is the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease and a significant threat to healthy and sustainable production of salmonid fish worldwide. This pathogen is difficult to culture in vitro, genetic manipulation is challenging, and current therapies and preventative strategies are only marginally effective in preventing disease. The complete genome of R. salmoninarum ATCC 33209 was sequenced and shown to be a 3,155,250-bp circular chromosome that is predicted to contain 3,507 open-reading frames (ORFs). A total of 80 copies of three different insertion sequence elements are interspersed throughout the genome. Approximately 21% of the predicted ORFs have been inactivated via frameshifts, point mutations, insertion sequences, and putative deletions. The R. salmoninarum genome has extended regions of synteny to the Arthrobacter sp. strain FB24 and Arthrobacter aurescens TC1 genomes, but it is approximately 1.9 Mb smaller than both Arthrobacter genomes and has a lower G+C content, suggesting that significant genome reduction has occurred since divergence from the last common ancestor. A limited set of putative virulence factors appear to have been acquired via horizontal transmission after divergence of the species; these factors include capsular polysaccharides, heme sequestration molecules, and the major secreted cell surface antigen p57 (also known as major soluble antigen). Examination of the genome revealed a number of ORFs homologous to antibiotic resistance genes, including genes encoding beta-lactamases, efflux proteins, macrolide glycosyltransferases, and rRNA methyltransferases. The genome sequence provides new insights into R. salmoninarum evolution and may facilitate identification of chemotherapeutic targets and vaccine candidates that can be used for prevention and treatment of infections in cultured salmonids.

J Bacteriol. 2008 Nov;190(21):6970-82. 
doi: 10.1128/JB.00721-08. Epub 2008 Aug 22.

Identification of open reading frames unique to a select agent: Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2.

Gabriel DW, Allen C, Schell M, Denny TP, Greenberg JT, Duan YP, Flores-Cruz Z, Huang Q, Clifford JM, Presting G, González ET, Reddy J, Elphinstone J, Swanson J, Yao J, Mulholland V, Liu L, Farmerie W, Patnaikuni M, Balogh B, Norman D, Alvarez A, Castillo JA, Jones J, Saddler G, Walunas T, Zhukov A, Mikhailova N.

An 8x draft genome was obtained and annotated for Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 (R3B2) strain UW551, a United States Department of Agriculture Select Agent isolated from geranium. The draft UW551 genome consisted of 80,169 reads resulting in 582 contigs containing 5,925,491 base pairs, with an average 64.5% GC content. Annotation revealed a predicted 4,454 protein coding open reading frames (ORFs), 43 tRNAs, and 5 rRNAs; 2,793 (or 62%) of the ORFs had a functional assignment. The UW551 genome was compared with the published genome of R. solanacearum race 1 biovar 3 tropical tomato strain GMI1000. The two phylogenetically distinct strains were at least 71% syntenic in gene organization. Most genes encoding known pathogenicity determinants, including predicted type III secreted effectors, appeared to be common to both strains. A total of 402 unique UW551 ORFs were identified, none of which had a best hit or >45% amino acid sequence identity with any R. solanacearum predicted protein; 16 had strong (E < 10(-13)) best hits to ORFs found in other bacterial plant pathogens. Many of the 402 unique genes were clustered, including 5 found in the hrp region and 38 contiguous, potential prophage genes. Conservation of some UW551 unique genes among R3B2 strains was examined by polymerase chain reaction among a group of 58 strains from different races and biovars, resulting in the identification of genes that may be potentially useful for diagnostic detection and identification of R3B2 strains. One 22-kb region that appears to be present in GMI1000 as a result of horizontal gene transfer is absent from UW551 and encodes enzymes that likely are essential for utilization of the three sugar alcohols that distinguish biovars 3 and 4 from biovars 1 and 2.

Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2006 Jan;19(1):69-79.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/MPMI-19-0069

Draft Sequencing and Comparative Genomics of Xylella fastidiosa Strains Reveal Novel Biological Insights.

Anamitra Bhattacharyya, Stephanie Stilwagen, Gary Reznik, Helene Feil, William S. Feil, Iain Anderson, Axel Bernal, Mark D'Souza, Natalia Ivanova, Vinayak Kapatral, Niels Larsen, Tamara Los, Athanasios Lykidis, Eugene Selkov, Jr., Theresa L. Walunas, Alexander Purcell, Rob A. Edwards, Trevor Hawkins, Robert Haselkorn, Ross Overbeek, Nikos C. Kyrpides, and Paul F. Predki

Draft sequencing is a rapid and efficient method for determining the near-complete sequence of microbial genomes. Here we report a comparative analysis of one complete and two draft genome sequences of the phytopathogenic bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa, which causes serious disease in plants, including citrus, almond, and oleander. We present highlights of an in silico analysis based on a comparison of reconstructions of core biological subsystems. Cellular pathway reconstructions have been used to identify a small number of genes, which are likely to reside within the draft genomes but are not captured in the draft assembly. These represented only a small fraction of all genes and were predominantly large and small ribosomal subunit protein components. By using this approach, some of the inherent limitations of draft sequence can be significantly reduced. Despite the incomplete nature of the draft genomes, it is possible to identify several phage-related genes, which appear to be absent from the draft genomes and not the result of insufficient sequence sampling. This region may therefore identify potential host-specific functions. Based on this first functional reconstruction of a phytopathogenic microbe, we spotlight an unusual respiration machinery as a potential target for biological control. We also predicted and developed a new defined growth medium for Xylella.

Genome Res. 2002 Oct; 12(10): 1556–1563.
doi:  10.1101/gr.370702